Spotlight 04/24: Resisting Energy Transition? Understanding Roadblocks in Northern Colombia

by Martin Gubsch and Elena García Conejero | To the Publication

1 The term Alijuna means “outsider” and is still frequently used by the Wayuu to describe “the others”, including non-Wayuu Colombians.

2 Federación Colombiana de Transportadores de Carga por Carretera; available at:

3 12 percent of road blocks by 2 percent of the population; available at:

4 The bonanza marimbera describes a period between 1970 and 1985 of high economic growth as a result of drug trafficking gangs dedicated to marijuana cultivation and smuggling on the Colombian Caribbean coast.


6  Based on interviews conducted by Martin Gubsch as part of his research project; available at: