Spotlight 13/23: Back in Business or Never Out? Military Coups and Political Militarization in Sub-Sahara Africa

by Markus Bayer, Felix S. Bethke, Aurel Croissant and Nikitas Scheeder | To the Publication

Croissant, A.; Kuehn, D.; Chambers, P. & Wolf, S. O. (2010). Beyond the fallacy of coup-ism: Conceptualizing civilian control of the military in emerging democracies. Democratization, 17(5), 950-975.

2 The data for figure 1 is based on Powell, J. M. & Thyne, C. L. (2011). Global instances of coups from 1950 to 2010: A new dataset. Journal of Peace Research 48(2), 249-259.

3 United States Department of State (2019). Nigeria 2019 Human Rights Report, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2019, 

4 Namely Burkina Faso, Chad, Gabon, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, and Sudan. Sao Tome and Principe also witnessed a coup in 2022 but is left out in the analysis since it is not included in the M3-Dataset.

Benin, Botswana, Ivory Coast, Rep. of Congo, Ghana, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Eswatini, and South Africa.

Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Sudan, Chad, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Zimmermann, E. (1983). Political violence, crises and revolutions: Theories and research. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co.