Spotlight 05/21: China‘s ambivalent role in Myanmar. The challenging path to peace and democratization in Myanmar | References

by Pascal Abb and Monalisa Adhikari | To the publication

1 Richard Paddock, „Military Crackdown in Myanmar Escalates With Killing of Protesters“, The New York Times, 28 February 2021.

2 Aung Zaw, “CDM Movement Unmasks China’s Meddling in Myanmar,” The Irrawaddy, 20 February 2021, <>.

3 UN News, “Security Council calls for release of Aung San Suu Kyi, pledging ‘continued support’ for Myanmar’s democratic transition”, 4 February 2021, <>.

4 Chinese Embassy in Myanmar, “Chinese Ambassador to Myanmar H.E. Mr. Chen Hai gives interview to Myanmar Media on the current situation in Myanmar”, 16 February 2021, <>.

5 Tom Kramer, “Ending 50 Years of Military Rule? Prospects for Peace, Democracy and Development in Burma”, <>.

6 David Brenner, “Authority in rebel groups: identity, recognitionand the struggle over legitimacy”, Contemporary Politics, 23:4, 408-426.

7 Maung Aung Myoe, “Myanmar’s Foreign Policy under the USDP Government: Continuities and Changes”, Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 35: 123.

8 Sun Yun, “China’s role in Myanmar’s internal conflicts”, Washington: United States Institute for Peace, September 2018.

9 Ibid.

10 Transnational Institute, “Selling the Silk Road Spirit: China’s Belt and Road Initiative in Myanmar”, Amsterdam: Transnational Institute, <>.

11 Laur Kiik, “Nationalism and anti-ethno-politics: why ‘Chinese Development’ failed at Myanmar’s Myitsone dam”, Eurasian Geography and Economics 57(3), 374-402.

12 Debbie Sze Wan Chan and Ngai Pun, “Renegotiating Belt and Road cooperation: social resistance in a Sino–Myanmar copper mine”, Third World Quarterly 41(12), 2109-2129.

13 Kate Hodal, “Aung San Suu Kyi faces protesters at copper mine”, The Guardian, 13 March 2013; Thomas Fuller, “Burmese laureate heckled over backing copper mine”, The New York Times, 14 March 2013.

14 Ding Xueliang, “The pitfalls Chinese overseas investments must avoid – Myanmar as an example” (zhongguo haiwai touzi ying bimian de xianjing – yi miandian weili), Southern Weekend, 20 July 2015; Tang Dexin, “On the eve of Aung San Suu Kyi’s China visit, Myanmar’s ‘Lu Du Pon Yeik’ newspaper interviews a Chinese scholar” (angshansuji fanghua qianxi, miandian ‘Lu Du Pon Yeik’ ribao caifang zhongguo xuezhe), Aisixiang, 15 August 2016, <>.

15 Liu Jinpeng, “Myanmar’s general election - she has already won” (miandian daxuan – ta yijing ying le), Aisixiang, 23 July 2015, <>.

16 Shabani Mahtani, “When Xi met Suu Kyi: China embraces Myanmar as Western nations pull back”, The Washington Post, 17 January 2020.

17 Martin Smith, “State of Strife: The Dynamics of Ethnic Conflict in Burma”, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2007.

18 Sun Yun, “China’s role in Myanmar’s internal conflicts”, Washington: United States Institute for Peace, September 2018.

19 Jürgen Haacke, “China’s Role in the Pursuit of Security by Myanmar’s State Peace and Development Council: Boon and Bane?”, The Pacific Review 23: 113–137.

20 Thant Myint-U, The Hidden History of Burma: Race, Capitalism, and the Crisis of Democracy in the 21st Century. Main edition. S.l.: Atlantic Books, 2020.

21 Institute for Security and Development Policy, “Myanmar’s Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement”, Stockholm: ISDP, 2015, <>.

22 Nan Lwin, “Infographic: 30 Years of Chinese Investment in Myanmar”, The Irrawaddy, 25 January 2019, <>.

23 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC, “Wang Yi Meets with Myanmar's Commander-in-Chief of Defense Services Min Aung Hlaing”, <>.

24 Noesselt, Nele, “China’s new regional responsiveness: passive agency and counter-agency in processes of democratic transitions in Asia”, Democratization 28(1), 219-236.