Democracy beyond legitimate coercion: Deadly use of force by the police in the Philippines and Brazil

This project investi­­gates state coercion in the form of deadly police violence in times of domestic peace in two demo­­cracies of the Global South. With Rodrigo Duterte and Jair Bolso­naro, populists came to power in both coun­tries, giving the police a free hand in com­bating drug-related crime. But even before that, both countries stood out within their regions due to high levels of police vio­lence.

The project exa­mines the relation­­ship between deadly police violence on the one hand and the violent attitudes of poli­ticians and the general popu­lation on the other. Most of the research on exces­sive police violence is attributed either to charac­teristics of the environ­­ment in which police­­men serve or to deficits of the police as an organi­­zation, to deficits of the organi­­zational culture or to specific strategies for preventing or combating crime. Instead, this project focuses on the role of public opinion and a corres­­ponding populism of political elites who may expect a tough stance to be advan­tageous in elections as factors for explaining the use of deadly police violence with varying degrees of fre­quency – both between and within states.

The aim of the project, for which third-party funding is provided by the DFG since February 2021, is to collect accurate data on the extent of lethal police violence in Brazil and the Philip­pines for at least a decade. This frame­­work will not only provide accurate infor­­mation on differen­ces between states and provinces, but also reveal changes over time at the national and sub-national levels. Through intensive field research in several sub­­national units, differences in the local perception of crime by the popu­lation and the local elites as well as the attitudes of the local police leader­­ship and their de jure and de facto depen­­dence on the local political leader­­ship are worked out. On that basis, the logics under­­lying police use of lethal force are recon­structed – in phases of "normality" without a centrally orches­­trated campaign against crime and in phases of central political excess.

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Argos seletivo: contradições na implementação de tecnologias de monitoramento em São Paulo | 2024

Natal, Ariadne (2024): Argos seletivo: contradições na implementação de tecnologias de monitoramento em São Paulo, Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública, 12.6.2024.

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Política da Morte: o rebranding de Tarcísio de Freitas | 2024

Natal, Ariadne (2024): Política da Morte: o rebranding de Tarcísio de Freitas, Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública, 2.5.2024.

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The Philippine National Police: Finally Putting Limits to Police Use of Deadly Force? | 2024

Kreuzer, Peter (2024): The Philippine National Police: Finally Putting Limits to Police Use of Deadly Force?, PRIF Blog, 11.4.2024.

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A sombra do escudo: o alto custo humano da segurança em São Paulo | 2024

Natal, Ariadne (2024): A sombra do escudo: o alto custo humano da segurança em São Paulo, Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública, 27.3.2024.

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Operações Escudo e Verão: estratégias questionáveis na Baixada Santista | 2024

Natal, Ariadne (2024): Operações Escudo e Verão: estratégias questionáveis na Baixada Santista, Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública, 13.3.2024.

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Localization of Fatal Police Violence | 2024

Kreuzer, Peter (2024): Localization of Fatal Police Violence. Evidence from the Philippines, PRIF Spotlight 1/2024, Frankfurt/M, DOI: 10.48809/prifspot2401.

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Panorama da letalidade policial no Amapá | 2024

Natal, Ariadne (2024): Panorama da letalidade policial no Amapá, Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública, 7.2.2024.

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Justiciamento x Justiça: o cartão postal às avessas | 2023

Natal, Ariadne (2023): Justiciamento x Justiça: o cartão postal às avessas, Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública, 13.12.2023.

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Vale o Escrito: Meandros do Jogo do Bicho no Rio de Janeiro | 2023

Natal, Ariadne (2023): Vale o Escrito: Meandros do Jogo do Bicho no Rio de Janeiro, Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública, 30.11.2023.

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Rodrigo Duterte: The Legacy of a Widely Popular Strongman President | 2023

Kreuzer, Peter (2023): Rodrigo Duterte: The Legacy of a Widely Popular Strongman President, PRIF Report 7/2023, Frankfurt/M., DOI: 10.48809/prifrep2307.

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Controle do uso da força pelas polícias, uma pedra no sapato do Estado brasileiro | 2023

Natal, Ariadne (2023): Controle do uso da força pelas polícias, uma pedra no sapato do Estado brasileiro, Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública, 18.10.2023.

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Entre Altos e Baixos: a questão da Segurança Pública no ranking dos principais problemas brasileiros | 2023

Natal, Ariadne (2023): Entre Altos e Baixos: a questão da Segurança Pública no ranking dos principais problemas brasileiros, Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública, 4.10.2023.

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Transparência Sob Ameaça: o esvaziamento do Programa de Câmeras Corporais da Polícia Militar de São Paulo | 2023

Natal, Ariadne (2023): Transparência Sob Ameaça: o esvaziamento do Programa de Câmeras Corporais da Polícia Militar de São Paulo, Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública, 23.8.2023.

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O Uso da Força Letal pela Polícia: Uma Análise Comparativa entre Brasil e Filipinas | 2023

Natal, Ariadne / Kreuzer, Peter (2023): O Uso da Força Letal pela Polícia: Uma Análise Comparativa entre Brasil e Filipinas, Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública, 15.6.2023.

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Linchamento no Guarujá expõe o viés na cobertura jornalística | 2023

Natal, Ariadne (2023): Linchamento no Guarujá expõe o viés na cobertura jornalística, Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública, 10.5.2023.

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Precisamos urgentemente de um projeto de desradicalização das forças policiais | 2023

Natal, Ariadne (2023): Precisamos urgentemente de um projeto de desradicalização das forças policiais, 1.2.2023.

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Impunity and Police Vigilantism | 2022

Kreuzer, Peter (2022): Impunity and Police Vigilantism. Is the highly excessive use of deadly force by the police in the Philippines now over?, PRIF Spotlight 6/2022, Frankfurt/M, DOI: 10.48809/prifspot2206.

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Killing Politicians in the Philippines: Who, Where, When, and Why | 2022

Kreuzer, Peter (2022): Killing Politicians in the Philippines: Who, Where, When, and Why, PRIF Report 2/2022, Frankfurt/M, DOI: 10.48809/prifrep2202.

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19
Fear and Legitimacy in São Paulo, Brazil. Police-Citizen Relations in a High Violence, High Fear City | 2021

Natal, Ariadne / Jackson, Jonathan / Pósch, Krisztián / Oliveira, Thiago R. (2021): Fear and Legitimacy in São Paulo, Brazil. Police-Citizen Relations in a High Violence, High Fear City, in: SocArXiv, https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/3awrz/. DOI: 10.31235/osf.io/3awrz.

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Legitimidade e obediência. Diálogos da criminologia com a teoria sociológica | 2021

Natal, Ariadne / Castelo Branco, Frederico / Alvarez, Marcos (2021): Legitimidade e obediência. Diálogos da criminologia com a teoria sociológica, in: Tempo Social, 3:33, 147–166, DOI: 10.11606/0103-2070.ts.2021.190229.

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"If You Can't Beat Them, Kill Them" | 2021

Kreuzer, Peter (2021): "If You Can't Beat Them, Kill Them". Fatal Violence Against Politicians in the Philippines, PRIF Report 2/2021, Frankfurt/M.

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Medo do crime: Mensurando o fenômeno e explorando seus preditores na cidade de São Paulo | 2021

Zanetic, André / Mendes, Silvia M. / Bradford, Ben / Oliveira, Thiago R. / Pósch, Krisztián / Jackson, Jonathan / Natal, Ariadne (2021): Medo do crime: Mensurando o fenômeno e explorando seus preditores na cidade de São Paulo, in: Revista Opinião Pública.

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Governors and Mayors in the Philippines | 2020

Kreuzer, Peter (2020): Governors and Mayors in the Philippines. Resistance to or Support for Duterte's Deadly War on Drugs, PRIF Report 5/2020, Frankfurt/M.

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Der autoritäre Patron, der liefert? | 2020

Kreuzer, Peter (2020): Der autoritäre Patron, der liefert? Weiterhin breite Unterstützung für Präsident Duterte in den Philippinen, PRIF Spotlight 5/2020, Frankfurt/M.

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A patron-strongman who delivers | 2020

Kreuzer, Peter (2020): A patron-strongman who delivers. Explaining enduring public support for President Duterte in the Philippines, PRIF Report 1/2020, Frankfurt/M.

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Duterte’s war against drugs in the Philippines: Continuity and change | 2019

Kreuzer, Peter (2019): Duterte’s war against drugs in the Philippines: Continuity and change, PRIF BLOG, 14.3.2019.

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Populism, executive assertiveness and popular support for strongman-democracy in the Philippines | 2019

Kreuzer, Peter (2019): Populism, executive assertiveness and popular support for strongman-democracy in the Philippines, PRIF BLOG, 17.1.2019.

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Excessive Use of Deadly Force by Police in the Philippines Before Duterte | 2018

Kreuzer, Peter (2018): Excessive Use of Deadly Force by Police in the Philippines Before Duterte, in: Journal of Contemporary Asia, Published online: May 2018, DOI: 10.1080/00472336.2018.1471155.

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The Philippines after one year under Duterte | 2017

Kreuzer, Peter (2017): The Philippines after one year under Duterte. Still majority support for killing suspected criminals, PRIF Blog, 30.6.2017.

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"If they resist, kill them all": Police Vigilantism in the Philippines | 2016

Kreuzer, Peter (2016): "If they resist, kill them all": Police Vigilantism in the Philippines, PRIF Report No. 142, Frankfurt/M.

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Donors

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Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
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